"Wavescan" is a weekly program for long distance radio hobbyists produced by Dr. Adrian M. Peterson, Coordinator of International Relations for Adventist World Radio. AWR carries the program over many of its stations (including shortwave). Adrian Peterson is a highly regarded DXer and radio historian, and often includes features on radio history in his program. We are reproducing those features below, with Dr. Peterson's permission and assistance.
Radio Broadcasting in Singapore
1. Singapore Island
As the world traveling tourist knows, the island of Singapore is both ancient and modern. Its pre-history goes way back through the centuries into the unwritten eras of legendary events more than a thousand years ago, and yet it is these days a fast, modern and bustling city of international trade and commerce.
The earliest known written record about Singapore is a 3rd century account from China that tells of a settlement that was already established on the southern edge of the island known as Pulau Ujong; that is, "The Island at the End of the Peninsula." It was in the 14th century that a rajah from Palembang in Indonesia took shelter on the island during a storm. He was startled by a wild animal that he took to be a lion, and from that time onwards, the island has been known as Singapura; that is, "Lion City" in the Sanskrit language. However, it is suggested that the animal was in reality, not a lion, but a tiger.
In the year 1819, the British established a trading post on Singapore island under Sir Stamford Raffles, and this event is looked upon as the earliest beginning of their modern era. Ultimately, on August 9, 1965, the island became an independent country in its own right. The name Singapore identifies the city, the island, and the nation.
Throughout the past several centuries, Singapore has come under the political and cultural influence of many nations and many peoples, and these would include the British, Dutch, Portuguese, Thai, Vietnamese, and Japanese. The three main ethnic groups on Singapore these days are the Chinese, Malay and Indian.
The nation of Singapore is made up of some 50 islands, only half of which are inhabited. The main island measures approximately 26 miles or 42 km east- west and 14 miles or 23 km north-south. The total population of this very prosperous and yet crowded nation is nearly 4? million.
There are many splendid tourist locations in Singapore, and these would include the Tiger Balm Gardens with its Buddhist culture, the Jurong Bird Park with its multitude of colorful and tuneful birds, Sentosa Island with the breathtaking views from the cable cars, and the Merlion as the symbol of Singapore itself. The Merlion stands in the water at the entrance to Singapore River, and it is a small statue with the head of a lion and the body of a fish. It was installed in 1964.
It can truly be said, as their official website states: Whatever your interest, Singapore offers you the traditional and the modern, the East and the West.
2. Early Wireless Stations
The first wireless station on the island of Singapore was given the callsign VPW, and this unit was an arc transmitter used solely for the transmission of Morse Code. The earliest known listing for VPW is in the year 1919, and the original allotted channel was 3,400 metres, corresponding to about 88 kHz in the longwave band.
Subsequent callsigns for this maritime communication station, which was located towards the centre of the island, were VPS (mid 1930s), and then GXM (before independence), though nowadays this service is on the air under several callsigns with the prefix 9.
Two years after the coastal wireless station was established, the British Admiralty built a navy base near Seletar on the northern edge of Singapore Island. A new spark gap Morse Code wireless station was installed quite close to the already established maritime wireless station, VPW, and this new facility was given the callsign BXW. In subsequent years, the callsigns in use at this station have been GYL and GYS.
International shortwave communication from Singapore has been conducted in more recent time under the callsigns 9VC, 9VF, 9VG, and 9VP. Aeradio calls to aircraft, as well as the Volmet weather broadcasts, are heard under the callsign 9VA. The transmitters for all of the major communication wireless and radio stations in Singapore have all been located at a high area towards the centre of the main island.
3. Amateur Radio Broadcasting - Mediumwave
As was the custom of the era in many countries of Asia and beyond, the first attempts at radio broadcasting were made by amateur radio operators and organizations. It was in 1925 that the Amateur Wireless Society of Malaya was formed in Singapore with the intent of establishing a radio broadcasting service with a 100 watt mediumwave transmitter. However, there was a delay in establishing this new facility, due no doubt to the fact that all of the equipment had to be ordered from England. This new station was finally inaugurated in 1927 under the British-style callsign 1SE and it was on the air spasmodically on 330 metres (910 kHz) for half a dozen years. The last known entry for this station in international radio broadcasting lists was in the year 1929.
4. Amateur Radio Broadcasting - Shortwave
During the 1930s, many amateur radio operators entered the international radio scene with attempts at radio broadcasting in the shortwave bands. The first of these radio entrepreneurs was Sir R. E. Earl who represented the British government at the Harbour Board in Singapore. He operated his own shortwave amateur station 2SE and he was on the air with broadcast programs on Saturdays twice a month. A little earlier in this program, we mentioned the amateur station, 1SE, and Sir Earl's station was the second in the colony, hence the callsign, 2SE,
During this same era, the callsigns of two amateur stations in Singapore were included in the lists of shortwave broadcasting stations. These were VS6XW, a new callsign, operated by Sir Earl at the Singapore Port Authority, with an irregular schedule on 28.75 metres in 1930, and VS1AB in the 41 metre band from 1932 to 1934. At the time, there was no local radio broadcasting service on mediumwave, and therefore each station had to produce its own programming which consisted mainly of recorded music.
5. Early Radio Broadcasting - Shortwave
Interestingly, the first official radio broadcasting service
in Singapore was a shortwave operation, not mediumwave.
The reasons for this would be twofold:-
* Tropical location, and therefore wider coverage area on shortwave
* Intent to cover the Malay peninsula from a single location
The first known logging for this new shortwave radio broadcasting station is given in the Melbourne based radio magazine, "Listener-In" in mid-November 1933. The station was identified under the callsign ZHI, the frequency was 6060 kHz in the 49 metre band and the schedule shows 2? hours each Monday Wednesday and Friday.
During the following year, the International DX Alliance in the United States gave the power as 180 watts. Now, in those days the power of a radio transmitter was calculated at the input level, though these days the measurement is taken at the antenna output of the transmitter. Thus, this new shortwave broadcasting station in Singapore really had a rated power of less than 100 watts.
Even though there was confusion in the radio magazines at the time, the correct address for the station was 2 Orchard Road in Singapore, the location of a ommercial radio service. There is at least one known QSL from this period, a letter issued to an American listener in the year 1934.
6. Early Radio Broadcasting - Mediumwave
Soon after the shortwave broadcasting service was launched, plans were announced for the establishment of a local broadcasting service, on mediumwave. The transmitter power was 2 kw., the operating channel was 1232 kHz, the callsign was ZHL, and the location was in a government building in Empress Place. This mediumwave station began a regular broadcasting service on June 1, 1936. Programming on both shortwave and mediumwave was in parallel. A couple of years later, the studio facility was transferred to Cathay Building on Thomson Road.
7. Government Radio Broadcasting Station
In 1937, work commenced on a complete new facility at Caldecott Hill in the outer reaches of Thomson Road under Sir Shenton Thomas. This facility, made up of studios and transmitters, was officially opened on March 1, 1937. At this stage, the original 90 watt shortwave transmitter, ZHI was re-designated as ZHO, and four new transmitters of 500 watts each were given callsigns in the ranges ZHP and ZHN. The four transmitters rated at 500 watt with the callsigns ZHP were on the air with broadcast programming whereas the transmitter ZHN was noted at irregular times with program relays to the ABC radio network in Australia.
All of these callsigns were noted in Australia and the United States, and reception reports were verified with the now famous, and nostalgic, and, I might add, quite rare QSL card, depicting a sunset scene in Malaya.
8. Jurong Transmitting Station
Soon after the new station at Caldecott Hill was commissioned,
work on a big new shortwave station was commenced at Jurong, quite
near the now famous Jurong Bird Park. In 1939, the BBC London
entered into a purchase arrangement for this Singapore radio station
with the intent of establishing a high powered relay facility
for international radio coverage throughout Asia. A new
100 kw. shortwave transmitter was shipped out from Chelmsford
in England, but it was lost at sea when the supply ship was torpedoed
and sunk. As a replacement, a new 50 kw. RCA transmitter
was shipped out from the United States, but this arrived with
power transformers designed for the American 50 cycle 110 volt
electrical system, not the British 60 cycle 240 volt system in
Singapore. The buildings and antenna systems were completed but
never activated, due to the unavailability of a suitable transmitter.
9. Shonan Radio
The shortwave and mediumwave station on Caldecott Hill made its last broadcast under the British colonial administration in late February 1942, and the Japanese administration re-opened the station again a few weeks later on March 27. Only one channel was in use at this stage, 9705 kHz, which was previously on the air under the callsign ZHP1.
However, quick usage of the empty facility at Jurong was implemented with the installation of a shortwave transmitter from the island of Penang. This comparatively new unit, probably a 7? kw. Marconi unit from England, though it is sometimes shown as 10 kw., had been installed in Penang by the British administration a few months earlier under the callsign ZHJ. In Singapore, this unit was inaugurated in August 1942 on the single channel 12,000 kHz.
Programming for Shonan Radio, "Light of the South," in English and several Asian languages, was usually produced in the Singapore studios on Caldecott Hill, although as noted in Australia, there were occasional relays from Radio Tokyo in Japan. On other occasions, there were also relays to and from Radio Saigon in Vietnam, and with the Philippine stations PIRN and PIRM in Manila.
Shonan Radio was last heard in the United States on February 3, 1945. There are no known QSLs from Shonan Radio.
10. Under the Americans & the British
Soon afterwards, the radio facilities in Singapore were re-activated, initially under the Americans as SEAC Radio, though shortly afterwards the station was taken over by the British as BMA Radio. In March 1945, the Newark News Radio Club in the United States reported the monitoring of signals from Singapore on 15450 kHz, no doubt coming from the previously transferred 10 kw. transmitter located at Jurong. The programming was beamed to the Philippines. The re-activated mediumwave transmitter ZHL was first noted in Australia a few months later in mid-September on 840 kHz.
11. Subsequent Developments
As time went by, additional mediumwave and shortwave transmitters were activated at Jurong, a new studio facility was constructed at Caldecott Hill, and the radio networks were divided into colors; Blue for English and Malay, Red for Chinese and Indian, Green for Chinese, and I think that there was also a Yellow Network at one stage as well. Over the intervening years, a total of 11 different shortwave transmitters were installed at Jurong, rated at 10 kw. and 50 kw.
However, when the housing estates began to encrouch into the Jurong area, the old shortwave base was closed and a modern new facility was constructed at Kranji, quite close to the BBC shortwave station. The Singapore shortwave station, operated by Singtel near Kranji, contains six shortwave transmitters at 250 kw. and one at 100 kw. The mediumwave transmitters at Jurong were closed and a new transmission center was installed at the center of the island, though the mediumwave units were de-activated several years ago.
12. Listening to Radio Singapura
You can hear Radio Singapura in any part of the world, at least at some time during their broadcast day. They are on the air in five languages on fixed frequencies in the 49 and 41 metre bands from 2300 UTC till 1600 UTC. The programming from the local FM networks is on the air in the mornings and afternoons and evenings, and the external service is on the air as Radio Singapore International from the same transmitters on the same channels in the evenings local time from 0900 UTC to 1400 UTC. Both units verify reception reports with very colorful picture cards showing local scenes throughout the island of Singapore.
How Old is Radio?
We who live in our very modern era of 2006, with its instantaneous communication capabilities, are very familiar with the wonders of television with its pictures and sounds from the four corners of the earth. We are aware that these images are captured with electronic equipment and then forwarded to every destination by satellites poised high in the sky. Why, these days, we can even download these entrancing video features into a small hand-held apparatus while we are traveling, and ever so busy with the daily events of our crowded lives.
And before there was television, with its multi-modes of delivery, there was radio, also with its multi-modes of delivery. Radio is still a viable worldwide medium of sound delivery, be it FM in stereo, or AM in mono, and these signals are picked up by commuters on their way to work, or school, or vacation. On the wider scene, current experiments are under way for the transmission of international radio signals in the digital mode from one country to another, and from one continent to another.
With all of these new-fangled gadgets that have captured the interest of millions of earthlings, have you ever wondered just how far back in time we would need to go in order to find out just when radio became radio? Turning back the pages of time is indeed fascinating, so just let's do that.
The first known occasion in which is presented the concept of sending meaningful messages by electricity goes way back into ancient times, ancient Bible times, in fact. The Holy Bible is a collection of individual books, sixty six all told, which were written over a period of more than 1,000 years. The oldest of these books is given the title of Job, written about 3,500 years ago, and it contains an enigmatic statement that seems to infer the possibility of sending meaningful messages with the usage of electricity.
This is the statement as found in the Biblical book of Job, reading chapter 38 and verse 35. In the King James version, with its old English style of presentation, this verse reads as follows: Canst thou send lightnings that they may go and say unto thee: here we are? In a free translation of this text from the original language into what we might describe as a radio related rendition, this is how this verse could read: Can you transmit electricity so that it will propagate and announce: Hello? That old statement does sound like a forecast for radio, doesn't it?
Another ancient statement about radio was written about 2,200 years ago. It is found in one version of the Babylonian Talmud, and when this is translated into modern English this is how it reads: Radio, a voice that goes from one end of the world to the other.
However, the practical usage of electricity to carry a message from one place to another was not developed until the noted Italian inventor, Guglielmo Marconi, began his experimental work on the family farm near Bologna in northern Italy in 1895. From this tentative and hesitant beginning, based on the earlier experimentation of a multitude of others before him, and followed by another multitude of others after him, has ultimately developed the electronic procedures for the sending of sound from anywhere to anywhere. Need I remind you that you are listening at this very moment to one of these very successful procedures, the broadcast of this, our DX program, "Wavescan", on shortwave, from our production facilities here in Singapore, via a powerful shortwave transmitter in a distant country, right into your radio receiver.